This purpose of this guide is to serve as a reference for programming in C. This guide will not cover everything in C, but simply some basics. You can come to this guide whenever you are confused by something in other guides, or want to know more about C.


Variables in C are like variables in math. They are simply a name or letter that represents something else. They can be used to represent numbers, characters, places in memory, or any other type in C. There are some rules to the naming of variables in C. All variables in C must begin with a letter or an underscore (_). The only characters allowed in variable names are numbers, letters (both upper and lower case), and underscores. Variables are case sensitive, so you could have two separate variables with the same name, but one is all lowercase letters, and one is all uppercase letters. Variables can not have the same name as a reserved name or function name. Below are some examples.

Valid Examples:

  • a
  • num
  • _num
  • NUM
  • myVar
  • myVar2

Invalid Examples:

  • 2var
  • my num
  • new*var
  • printf
  • case


C is a weakly typed language, meaning you must give types to all of your variables when you initialize them. The basic C types are char, int, and float.

A char is simply a character, such as a letter or number, however there are also special characters such as the newline and null characters. Characters are specified by single quotes (see examples below). They also can be specified by the number of the character according to the ASCII table. Variables initialized by char are “signed” meaning the can be represented by both positive and negative numbers. If we want to initialize a character, but we don’t care about the sign, we can initialize it as unsigned char. All of the below variables will hold the same character.

char firstA = 'a';
char secondA = 97;
unsigned char thirdA = 97;

  An int is an integer, or whole, number. You can try assigning an fractional number to an integer variable, but the C compiler will only assign the whole number part to the variable. Like characters, integers can be both signed or unsigned. In addition to this, integers can be either “short” or “long.” As the names imply, shorts can hold smaller numbers than longs. Both shorts and longs can be signed or unsigned. Below are some examples of integers. All variables below will hold the same value.

int a = 5;
unsigned int b = 5.5;
short c = 5;
long d = 5.0;

  A float is a decimal number and are always signed. Like integers, floats can be longs; however, long floats are called double. There are also long doubles that hold even more data than doubles. Below are some examples of initializing floats. The below variables do not hold the same values.

float a = -10.52;
double b = 781.15828592;
long double c = -1.33525;


Comments are a way to make the code more readable to humans and are denoted by either // for a single-line comment, or /* and */ for a multi-line comment. For single line comments, everything after the // is ignored. For multi-line comments, everything between the /* and */ are ignored. Comments are completely ignored by the C compiler, meaning you can type anything and your code will still work. Comments are often used when debugging your programs since you can quickly stop the line from functioning while still having it there. Below are some examples.

//This is a comment
/*This is a multiline comment on one line.*/
This is
a multiline comment
on many lines.

// The comment on the next line shows the result
int a = 5 + 10;		// a = 15

// The following code has been commented out for debugging purposes
//int b = 6 - a;

// All of the following code will be ignored
int c = 10;
float d = 6.5;
float e = c * d;

Mathematical Operations

Math operations in C are as simple as to do as typing them in to a calculator. You can do addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on regular numbers, as well as variables. C is also smart enough to recognize and apply order of operations. With the exception of division, these operators work as expected for all types. Below are some examples.

int a = 5;
float b = 2.5;

float x = a + b;		// x = 7.5
int y = a - 9;			// y = -4
float z = a * b;		// z = 12.5
float c = (6 + b) * a;	// c = 42.5

  Division is different in the fact that there are two types of division; integer division and float division. As the names imply, integer division is between two integers, while float division is between any other two types. Float division works as you would expect division to normally work (the result can be a number with a decimal place). Integer division does not work like this; the result must be an integer. This means that if we divide 6 by 4, the result is 1. Essentially, it just returns the whole number answer. If we want the remainder from this division, we can use the modulus operator (%). If we then did 6 % 4, the result would be 2, since 4 goes into 6 once, and then there is a remainder of 4. Below are some examples.

int a = 5 / 2;		// a = 2
int b = 5 % 2;		// b = 1
float c = 5.0 / 2;	// c = 2.5
int d = a / c;		// d = 0

  In addition to the basic operators, C also has a few shortcuts that make typing easier. If you want to add or subtract one from a variable, you can use the ++ or -- operators. These symbols go before or after the variable name (see examples below). If you want the addition or subtraction to occur before other operations, you put the symbol before the variable name. If you want the addition or subtraction to occur after the variable has been evaluated, you put the symbol after the variable name.

int i = 5;
int a = 10 + ++i;	// a = 16, i = 6
int b = 4 + i--;	// b = 10, i = 5
b++;				// b = 11
--a;				// a = 15

  Another type of shortcut can be used if we want to update a variable. For example, look at the code below.

int a = 5;
a += 9;			// a = 14

The second line of this code is the same as a = a + 9. This type of shortcut can be used with any other mathematical operator, such as multiplication, division, and subtraction.


Arrays in C are lists of variables of the same type. To initialize an array, you must know the type of variable you want, as well as the number of elements in the array you can have. You can have arrays of any type. You can access the individual elements in the array by putting the number of the element in brackets after the name of the array (see examples below). It should be noted that the index of the first element in an array is 0, and the last element of the array is indexed by the length of the array minus 1. Below are some examples of initializing and using arrays.

int arr[5] = {9, 8, 7, 6, 5};	// initializes and array where we know the elements ahead of time
int arr2[5];					// initializes an empty array
arr2[0] = 4;					// stores 4 in the first position of the array
arr2[1] = 18;					// stores 18 in the index 1 of the array
arr2[2] = arr[0] + arr[4];		// stores 9 + 5 = 14 in the third element of the array
arr2[3] = arr2[2] + arr[2];		// stores 14 + 7 = 21 in index 3 of the array

If Statements

Often times in programming we want things to happen, only if something else has happened. To do this, we use if statements. These work by checking if a certain condition is true. If it is, the code inside the if statement is run. If not, the next condition will be checked if there is an else if statement. If this is not true, then the code will keep checking until there is either an else statement, or nothing. If there is an else statement, it acts as a default. If there is no else, then the code will keep going. Below are a few examples.

int a = 5;
int b = 3;
int c = -10;

if (a > b + c) {	// this will be false (5 > 3 + (-10))
	a = 0;			// this will not be run, so a is still 5

if (c > a) {		// this will be false (-10 > 5)
	a = 0;			// this will not be run
} else if (c > b) {	// this will be false (-10 > 3)
	b = 0;			// this will not be run
} else {			// since the other two have failed, this will be run
	c = 0;			// this will be run

if (a > c) {		// this will be true (5 > 0)
	a += 5;			// this will run, so a = 10
} else {			// since the if statement was true, this will not be run
	a = 0;			// this will not be run


There are 3 types of loops in C; while, do… while, and for.

The easiest loops to use are for loops. Often times they are used for counters. The first part of a for loop is used for initialization of any variables. The second part is the condition when the loop ends. The last part of the loop is the update condition. Below is an example of a for loop that does nothing but count from 0 to 9.

for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {


  If you want to do something repeatedly until a condition is met you should use a while loop. These only have a field where an exit condition is met. These can be used like for loops, as in the example below.

int i = 0;
while (i < 10) {


  The final kind of loop is a do… while loop. These are used if you want to do a loop at least once. They are useful when you want to do error checking or get user input. The code inside the loop will be iterated through once, then the exit condition is checked. If the condition has not been met yet, the code will be repeated. Below is an example.

int i = 10;
int a = 1;
do {
	a *= i;
} while (a < 100);


Functions are bundles of code that allow the programmer to abstract things away and make the code more readable. The first line of the function is the function prototype. This tells the programmer and computer what the name of the function is, what the return value is, and what parameters the function needs to work. After this, the code that will be executed when the function is called is written. Below is a simple example of a function that adds 5 to a number.

double add5(double x)
	return x + 5;

In the above example, the return statement is what the function returns when it is called. Below is an example using the simple add5 function.

double a = 10.0;
double b = add5(a);		// b = 15
double c = add5(a);		// c = 15
double d = add5(b + c);	// d = 35, since b + c + 5 = 35

As you can see from the last example, you can do other operations inside the parentheses for the function. This will be evaluated before the function does anything with the number passed to it. Another thing to point out from the above example is that we passed in a double. It is important to pass in a number or variable of the type the function expects, otherwise errors could result.

The previous example had a return type of double; however, not all functions will return something. When this happens, the return type is void. This can also be used when a function does not take in any parameters. Below are two examples that use the void type.

int get5(void)
	return 5;

void printHi(void)
	printf("Hi\n");		// this assumes stdio.h is included


Libraries are files that contain code that often works together to serve one purpose. Often, libraries have optimized code for doing basic things. These files often have two parts, the .c file that contains the code for the functions, and the .h file. When including libraries, we include the .h file. A few common libraries in C are stdio.h, stdlib.h, and math.h. These statements usually are the first lines of a C file. Below is an example on how to include libraries in your program.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

Define Statements

To make code easy to read and change, sometimes we want a variable to actually be constant. This can be achieved with define statements. These allow the programmer to give a word a value that cannot change. Often, these constants are in all capitol letters. If we have a long program and have some value entered many places, instead of changing each of those places, we can change the parameter once. These statements often are at the top of a file after libraries are included. Below are examples of define statements.

#define ITERATIONS 10
#define TIME 5

Advanced Mathematical Operations

C does not have any operators for more complex mathematical operations built in. If we want to use trigonometric functions or exponents we must use the math.h library. Below is a table of the function prototypes for some of the most common functions in this library.

Function Prototype Explanation
double cos(double x) Returns the cosine of an angle in radians.
double sin(double x) Returns the sine of an angle in radians.
double exp(double x) Returns Euler’s number raised to x.
double pow(double x, double y) Returns x raised to the power y.
double fabs(double x) Returns the absolute value of x.
double ceil(double x) Returns x rounded up to the nearest integer.
double floor(double x) Returns x rounded down to the nearest integer.